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學校名稱輔仁大學
系所名稱英國語文學系
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學號485206049
研究生(中)張嘉怡
研究生(英)Chia Yi Philip Chang
論文名稱(中)奧古斯特‧威爾森三劇中以藍調詮釋族裔認同之省思
論文名稱(英)Musical Expression as an Ethnical Identity in Three Plays by August Wilson
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指導教授(中)劉雪珍
指導教授(英)Cecilia H. C. Liu
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學位類別碩士
畢業學年度88
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語文別英文
關鍵字(中)藍調 族裔認同 文化認同 爵士 歷史
關鍵字(英)the blues ethnical identity cultural identity jazz history
摘要(中)此論文試探討奧古斯特?威爾森如何於其三劇中, 以藍調為主軸來詮釋非裔美人之「族裔」與「文化」認同的問題。 本論文分為五個部分,第一與第五為緒論與結語; 二、 三、 四分別為第一、 二、 三章。 緒論部分會對黑人劇場的歷史背景作一簡介; 第一章探討於「瑪芮妮之黑臀」〈Ma Rainey's Black Bottom〉中藍調被商業化與黑人樂手遭剝削之問題, 進而切入種族認同之議題。 第二章著墨「喬透納之來去」〈Joe Turner's Come and Gone〉一劇中南方黑人北移至北方時,所面臨不管是在工作亦或是生活環境上,所遭受不平的等待;進而帶入黑奴解放前/後之種族與自我認同之議題; 第三章試分析於「籬笆」〈Fences〉一劇中藍調如何轉變為反映黑人對於六0年代快速變化之社會與政治環境之態度。
摘要(英)This thesis focuses on the blues as cultural and ethnical identities in three of August Wilson's plays, Ma Rainey's Black Bottom, Joe Turner's Come and Gone, and Fences. The goal is to examine how the blues can function as one part of African roots and as a collective memory and experience for black Americans. The blues in Ma Rainey is treated as a commercialized product and commodity to entertain the popular taste. Yet, Ma Rainey insists on the idea that the blues as African heritage black Americans should remember. In Joe Turner's Come and Gone, the emphasis is to recover the lost song that worth singing, that is, self-determination, and self-identity. Moreover, the stress is that black Americans should find out their self-worth before they achieve self-determination and self-identity. Coming to Fences, the blues becomes "a way of life" and "a way of talking." In other words, the blues has been transcended to express black Americans' daily life and illustrate their attitude toward this fast changing social condition in the 1960s. The content is divided into three parts that deal with these three plays respectively. The theories applied are Stuart Hall's idea of "cultural identity," "diaspora experience," and "articulation." When analyzing how black Americans are subjugated as minority and non-class race, Louis Althusser's concept of "ideology" will be applied to see through this process. Foucault's "discursive formation," on the other hand, helps explain characters' attitude toward the past and the present history. As a result, this thesis combines "history," "music," "identity," and "culture" to provide a better view about August Wilson's plays.
論文目次Introduction...............................................1 Chapter One Ma Rainey's Black Bottom: Learning the Blues..12 Chapter Two Joe Turner's Come and Gone: The Song Worth Singing.......................................40 Chapter Three Fences: Strengthening the Song...........65 Conclusion................................................88 Works Cited...............................................93
參考文獻Works Cited Adell, Sandra. "Speaking of Ma Rainey/Talking about the Blues." May All Your Fences Have Gates: Essays on the Drama of August Wilson. Ed. Alan Nadel. Iowa: University of Iowa P, 1994. 51-66. Althusser, Louis. Lenin and Philosophy. New York: Monthly Review P, 1971. August, Wilson. Fences. New York: Plume, 1986. ---. Joe Turner's Come and Gone. New York: Plume, 1988. ---. Ma Rainey's Black Bottom. New York: Plume, 1981. Baraka, Amiri. "Black Literature and the Afro-American Nation: The Urban Voice." Literature & The Urban Experience: Essays on the City and Literature. Ed. Michael C. Jaye. New Jersey: Rutgers UP, 1981. 139-59. ---. Blues People: Negro Music in White America. New York: Greenwood, 1980. Barlow, William. Looking Up At Down. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1989. Bigsby, C.W.E. A Critical Introduction to Twentieth Century American Drama. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1985. Bissiri, Amadou. "Aspects of Africanness in August Wilson's Drama: Reading The Piano Lesson through Wole Soyinka's Drama." African American Review 30.1 (1996): 99-113. Bogumil, Mary L. "Tomorrow Never Comes: Songs of Cultural Identity in August Wilson's Joe Turner's Come and Gone." Theatre Journal 46 (1994): 463-76. Coker, Jerry. Listening to Jazz. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1978. Cone, James H. The Spirituals and the Blues. New York: Orbis, 1999. Crow, Brian and Chris Banfield. An Introduction to Post-Colonial Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. DiGaetani, John L. A Search for a Postmodern Theatre: Interviews with Contemporary Playwrights. New York: Greenwood, 1991. 275-84. Dillon, M.C. ed. Merleau-Ponty and Derrida on Seeing and Writing. New Jersey: Humanities, 1997. 1-17. Ellison, Ralph. Shadow and Act. New York: Random House, 1964. Finkelstein, Sidney. Jazz: A People's Music. New York: International, 1948. Floyd, Samuel A. Jr. The Power of Black Music. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. Foucault, Michel. The Archaeology of Knowledge. New York: Pantheon, 1972. Frith, Simon. "Music and Identity." Questions of Cultural Identity. Ed. Stuart Hall and Paul de Gay. London: Sage, 1996. 108-127. Grossberg, Lawrence. "History, Politics, and Postmodernism: Stuart Hall and Cultural Studies." Bring It All Back Home: Essays on Cultural Studies. Durham: Duke UP, 1997. ---. "On Postmodernism and articulation: an interview with Stuart Hall." Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogue in Cultural Studies. Ed. David Morley and Kuan- Hsing Chen. New York: Routledge, 1996. 131-50. Hall, Stuart. "Cultural Identity and Diaspora." Identity: Community, Cultural, Difference. Ed. Jonathan Rutherford. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1990. 222-37. ---. "New Ethnicity." Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. Ed. David Morley and Kuan-Hsing Chen. New York: Routledge, 1996. 441-49. ---. "Who Needs Identity?" Questions of Cultural Identity. Ed. Stuart Hall and Paul de Gay. London: Sage, 1996. 1-17. ---. "The Work of Representation." Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. Ed. Stuart Hall and Paul de Gay. London: Sage, 1997. 13-74. Hill, Errol ed. The Theatre of Black Americans. New York: Theatre Book, 1987. 1-12. Hutnik, Nimmi. Ethnic Minority Identity: A Social Psychological Perspective. Oxford: Clarendon, 1991. Kofsky, Frank. Black Music White Business. New York: Pathfinder, 1998. ---. John Coltrane and the Jazz Revolution of the 1960s. New York: Pathfinders, 1998. Levine, Lawrence W. Black Cultural and Black Consciousness. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1977. Maultsby, Portia K. "Africanisms in African-American Music." Africanisms in American Culture. Ed. Joseph E. Holloway. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1990. 185-210. Moyers, Bill. "August Wilson's America: A Conversation with Bill Moyers." American Theatre 54 (1989): 13-7. Mullane, Deirdre ed. Crossing the Danger Water. New York: Anchor, 1993. Murray, Albert. Stomping the Blues. New York: Da Capo, 1976. Neal, Larry. "The Black Arts Movement." Within the Circle: An Anthology of African American Literary Criticism. Ed. Angelyn Mitchell. Durham: Duke UP, 1994. 184-98. ---. "The Ethos of the Blues." Speech and Power. Ed. Gerald Early. New Jersey: Ecco, 1993. 54-62. Oliver, Paul. Blues Fell This Morning. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1960. ---. The Story of the Blues. London: Pimlico, 1997. Palmer, Robert. Deep Blues. NewYork: Penguin, 1981. Pereira, Kim. August Wilson and the African-American Odyssey. Chicago: University of Illinois P, 1995. Pettengill, Richard. "An Interview with August Wilson." Casebook on Modern Drama: August Wilson. Ed. Kimball King. New York: Garland, 1994. Plum, Jay. "Blues, History, and the Dramaturgy of August Wilson." African American Review 27.4 (1993): 561-67. Powers, Kim. "An Interview with August Wilson." Theatre 16 (1984): 50-5. Sernett, Milton C. Bound For The Promised Land. Durham: Duke UP, 1997. Shannon, Sandra G. "Blues, History, and Dramaturgy: An Interview with August Wilson." African American Review 27.4 (1994): 539-59. ---. The Dramatic Vision of August Wilson. Washington D.C.: Howard UP, 1995. Slack, Jennifer Daryl. "The theory and method of articulation in cultural studies." Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. Ed. David Morley and Kuan-Hsing Chen. New York: Routledge, 1996. 112-30. Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black American. New York: Norton, 1997. Takaki, Ronald. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. London: Back Bay, 1993. Timpane, John. "Filling the Time: Reading History in the Drama of August Wilson." May All Your Fences Have Gates. Ed. Alan Nadel. Iowa: University of Iowa P, 1994. Werner, Graig Hansen. Playing the Changes: From Afro-American to the Jazz Impulse. Chicago: University of Illinois P, 1994. West, Cornel. "On Afro-American Popular Music: From Bebop to Rap." Speech and Power. Ed. Gerald Early. New Jersey: Ecco, 1993. Wilmeth, Don B. and Tice L. Miller ed. Cambridge Guide to American Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993. Yen, Angela A. C. "The Dynamics Between Integration & Multiplicity: August Wilson's Theatre of The Blues." M. A. Thesis. Providence University. 1998.
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