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學校名稱輔仁大學
系所名稱食品營養學系
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研究生(中)許哲綸
研究生(英)Che-Lun Hsu
論文名稱(中)調理包及輕度加工食品之微生物品質評估及改進
論文名稱(英)Evaluation and Improvement of Microbiological Quality of Convenient Prepared and Minimally Processed Foods
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指導教授(中)丘志威
指導教授(英)Chihwei P. Chiu
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關鍵字(中)調理包 輕度加工食品 微生物品質 醋酸 乳酸 檸檬酸 過氧化氫
關鍵字(英)ready-to-use prepared foods minimally processed Microbiological quality acetic acid lactic acid citric acid hydrogen peroxide
摘要(中)取樣97件市售及工廠生產之調理包食品進行微生物品質分析,在47件冷藏食品中,計有12件生菌數超過105 CFU/g,佔25.5%;而50件冷凍檢體中,9件生菌數超過105 CFU/g,佔18%。所有檢體有14件的coliforms超過10 MPN/g以上;Escherichia coli檢出2件;而Staphylococcus aureus均為陰性。自工廠中抽驗145件輕度加工食品,計有89件生菌數超過105 CFU/g,佔61.4%, 93件的coliforms超過10 MPN/g以上,佔64.1%;E. coli 檢出2件,而S. aureus 檢出3件。 義大利肉醬、新肉醬及玉米巧達湯三種調理包食品分別貯存於-18、4、18、25、30、40及50℃期間,coliforms、E. coli 及S. aureus均未被檢出。於-18及4℃貯存時,生菌數及pH值變化不明顯。在其他貯存溫度方面,義大利肉醬及新肉醬於50℃貯存時生菌數並無明顯上升,而25、30及40℃貯存24小時後,生菌數開始增加,於48小時後生菌數大於105 CFU/g以上。而pH值的變化並不明顯。玉米巧達湯於18℃貯存24小時,生菌數均維持102 CFU/g以下,但在其他溫度貯存時生菌數均大於105 CFU/g。於18℃貯存時,pH值變化較不明顯,而40及50℃貯存24小時後,pH值已降至5.0以下。 使用不同濃度醋酸、乳酸及檸檬酸浸泡萵苣絲30分鐘後,顯著降低pH值(p<0.05)。濃度為1.0%之醋酸有效抑制生菌數及coliforms。使用2.0%以上之乳酸,生菌數降至102 CFU/g以下,而0.1%即已將coliforms降至無法檢測。而使用3.0%檸檬酸將生菌數降至無法測得,coliforms則在0.3%時即無法測出。過氧化氫的使用並無法將微生物完全抑制,當過氧化氫濃度為5.0%時,生菌數降低2個log值,但有殘留之現象。至於E. coli 及S. aureus於萵苣絲中均未被檢出。 食品工廠工作人員手掌經過肥皂及清水清洗後,生菌數由103-106 CFU/hand下降至102-105 CFU/hand,coliforms約降低10-102 MPN/hand,而E. coli及S. aureus則均未檢出。調理包食品區的設備及用具經清洗後,生菌數約下降10?102 CFU/cm2,coliforms則下降至無法檢測。至於輕度加工食品區方面,設備及用具經清洗後的生菌數約降低10-103 CFU/cm2,coliforms則減少10-102 MPN/cm2。空氣品質方面,工廠作業區之空氣落菌平均值皆在30CFU/plate/5min以下符合GMP廠的要求。而工廠中各作業區之自來水水質檢測結果,生菌數在102 CFU/mL以下,coliforms、E. coli及 S. aureus均為陰性。
摘要(英)Ninety-seven commercial ready-to-use prepared foods from retail markets and factories were collected for microbiological analyses. Twelve of 47 refrigerated samples (25.5%) showed high aerobic plate count (APC), >105 CFU/g; whereas, 9 of 50 frozen samples (18%) had APC exceeding 105 CFU/g. Coliforms were detected from 14 samples, exceeding 10 MPN/g, and Escherichia coli was also found in 2 samples. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected. One hundred and forty five minimally processed foods were collected for microbiological analyses. Eighty-nine samples (61.4%) had APC exceeding 105 CFU/g. Coliforms were detected from 93 samples (64.1%), exceeding 10 MPN/g, and E. coli was also found in 2 samples, and S. aureus in 3 samples. The changes of microbial count and pH value were determined in spaghetti sauce, new spaghetti sauce and corn chowder during storage at —18, 4, 18, 25, 30, 40 and 50℃.All samples were not contaminated with coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus. The APC and the pH values of all samples maintained stable during storage at —18 and 4℃. The APC in spaghetti sauce and new spaghetti sauce increased after 24h storage at 25, 30 and 40℃, and reached 105 CFU/g after 48h. The APC of corn chowder was 102 CFU/g at 18℃after 24h storage, while it became greater than 105 CFU/g at other storage temperatures. The pH values did not change obviously at 18℃, whereas, it dropped to below 5.0 at 40 and 50℃ after 24h storage. The pH values of shredded lettuce dropped significantly (p<0.05) after immersion in various concentrations of acetic, lactic and citric acid for 30min. The inhibition effect of 1% acetic acid on APC and coliforms were significantly (p<0.05). As the level of acetic acid reached 2%, APC decreased to below 102 CFU/g, while coliforms were not detected when 0.1% lactic acid was in use. The APC was not detected when 3.0% citric acid was used, whereas coliforms count dropped to none when 0.3% citric acid was employed. With the treatment of hydrogen peroxide, the APC decreased by 2 log values. However, trace of hydrogen peroxide was also found in lettuces. E. coli and S. aureus were totally inhibited. Microbial evaluations of personnel, utensil, equipment, air and water were conducted in one minimally processed foods manufacturer. The APC of worker’s hands decreased from initial counts of 103-106 CFU/hand to 102-105 CFU/hand after washing with soap and water. Coliforms decreased 10-102 MPN/hand. None of E. coli and S. aureus was detected from worker’s hands. After cleaning, APC of equipment in the area of ready-to-use prepared foods, decreased 10?102 CFU/cm2 and none of coliforms was detected. In food processing area, APC of equipment decreased 10-103 CFU/cm2, while coliforms were not found. The microbial count of air in the plant was below 30 CFU/plate/5min, which coliforms to the GMP regulation. The APC of water in the plant were below 102 CFU/mL. No coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus was found.
論文目次第一章 前言………………………………………….. 1 第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………….. 4 一、 調理包食品簡介…………………………….. 4 二、 調理包食品之微生物污染………………….. 5 三、 調理包食品之微生物控制方法…………….. 10 (一)冷藏………………………………………… 10 (二)實施危害分析重點管制(Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, HACCP)……... 14 (三)抑菌劑的使用……………………………… 14 四、 輕度加工食品之微生物污染情形………….. 14 五、 幾種常見食物污染及中毒菌簡介………….. 26 (一)Coliforms…………………………………… 26 (二)E. coli……………………………………….. 26 (三)S. aureus……………………………………. 27 六、 輕度加工食品之微生物防治方法………… 28 (一)物理方法…………………………………… 28 (二)化學方法…………………………………… 29 (三)生物方法…………………………………… 37 七、 食品工廠衛生改善措施…………………….. 40 第三章 材料與方法…………………………………. 42 一、實驗材料……………………………………… 42 (一)市售調理包食品的種類…………………… 42 (二)有機酸及過氧化氫的種類及來源………… 44 (三)培養基……………………………………… 44 (四)化學試藥…………………………………… 45 (五)S. aureus快速檢測套組…………………… 45 二、儀器設備……………………………………… 45 三、實驗方法……………………………………… 46 (一)配藥方法…………………………………… 46 (二)研究內容…………………………………… 46 1.樣品製備…………………………………… 46 2.醋酸、乳酸、檸檬酸及過氧化氫對萵苣絲 微生物的抑制情形…………………….. 48 3.調理包及輕度加工食品工廠衛生調查…… 48 (三)分析方法…………………………………. 49 (四)統計分析…………………………………. 52 第四章 結果與討論………………………………….. 53 一、調理包食品之微生物品質評估……………... 53 二、輕度加工食品之微生物品質評估………….. 61 三、調理包食品貯存試驗……………………….. 61 四、有機酸及過氧化氫對萵苣絲微生物的抑制 情形………………………………………… 71 1.有機酸的抑菌效果………………………… 71 2.過氧化氫的抑菌效果…………………….. 80 五、食品工廠衛生評估與改善………………… 80 1.人員手部衛生情形………………………... 80 2.設備及用具的清洗消毒…………………... 85 3.空氣品質…………………………………... 88 4.食品工廠水質檢驗………………………... 89 第五章 結 論……………………………………….. 92 附 錄……………………………………………….. 95 參考文獻……………………………………………….. 108
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