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研究生(中)劉婉真
研究生(英)Wan-Chen Liu
論文名稱(中)大麥苗對於預防人體低密度脂蛋白氧化之影響
論文名稱(英)Effect of Young Barley Leaf Essence on The Prewvention of LDL Oxidation in Human
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指導教授(中)蔡敬民
指導教授(英)Chingmin E. Tsai
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關鍵字(中)大麥苗 黃豆油 橄欖油 低密度脂蛋白 氧化 抗氧化 遲滯期 膽固醇
關鍵字(英)young barley leaf essence soybean oil olive oil low density lipoprotein oxidation antioxidation lag phase cholesterol
摘要(中)本研究之目的在探討攝取橄欖油或黃豆油這兩種不同食用油脂與補充大麥苗及維生素C、E抗氧化劑,對正常健康者血脂質濃度及低密度脂蛋白(LDL)氧化之影響。 實驗為期三週,以60位自願、健康男性大學生為對象。實驗飲食的前兩組為橄欖油(O)、黃豆油(S)之基礎飲食;第三、四組每日另加給15 g大麥苗粉(OB, SB);第五、六組每日另再給予維生素C與E各200 mg (OBV, SBV)。於實驗前及3週後分別抽血測定空腹血脂質濃度及LDL氧化遲滯期 (lag phase)。實驗結果顯示黃豆油飲食組有降低血清總膽固醇之趨勢(P<0.10),並顯著降低LDL-C及HDL-C濃度(P<0.05),且其LDL氧化遲滯時間非常顯著比橄欖油組短(P<0.01);當在黃豆油飲食中另補充大麥苗時,則可非常明顯地降低血清總膽固醇濃度(P<0.01),並非常有效地延緩LDL的氧化(P<0.01)。攝取橄欖油飲食亦可非常有效延緩LDL之氧化(P<0.01)。而不論攝取何種油脂,當已添加大麥苗時,如再各給予200 mg維生素C及E,對於預防LDL之氧化並無幫助。 本研究可得以下結論:攝取富含PUFA之黃豆油作為飲食之主要食用油脂,具有降低血清膽固醇之趨勢,並顯著降低LDL-C濃度,但也降低了HDL-C濃度,且導致其LDL較易被氧化。若每日攝取15g大麥苗粉,三週後可增強攝取黃豆油飲食降低血清總膽固醇之效應,且顯著延緩LDL氧化遲滯時間。但在攝取大麥苗的同時補充200 mg維生素C及200 mg維生素E並無法明顯增強大麥苗所產生的抗氧化效果。而橄欖油本身已相當穩定,以致當再補充大麥苗以及維生素C與E,均無法再加強LDL的穩定性。 綜合以上所述,本研究建議每日攝取15g大麥苗粉可有效抑制攝取富含多元不飽和脂肪酸飲食所致LDL易被氧化之缺點。
摘要(英)This study investigated the antioxidative activities of young barley leaf essence (BL) on the oxidation of serum LDL in healthy subjects who ingested various saturation of edible oil, with or without vitamins C and E supplemented. Sixty healthy college students were randomly divided into 6 dietary groups, 10 in each. Basal diets contained olive oil (O) or soybean oil (S) as different saturation oil sources. The test subjects received O, S, O or S plus 15 g of BL (OB or SB), OB or SB plus additional 200 mg of vitamins C and E (OBV or SBV) diet daily for 3 weeks. After overnight fasting, blood samples were drawn at the beginning of the experiment and at the end of the 3-week feeding. Serum lipid levels and lag phases of LDL oxidation were determined. The results showed that S diet significantly decreased serum LDL-C and HDL-C levels (P<0.05). A shorter lag phase of LDL oxidation was observed in the subjects ingested S diet than the ones ingested O diet (P<0.01). The BL supplementation with soybean oil diet (SB) prolonged LDL oxidation very significantly (P<0.01). Ingestion of O diet could prolong LDL oxidation phase very significantly (P<0.01), too. Furthermore, their serum LDL-C levels were also reduced when they received an OB diet (P<0.05). However, supplementation of vitamins C and E with either OB or SB diet couldn’t enhance the effect of LDL oxidation prevention. In conclusion, ingestion of PUFA-rich diet (S) could reduce serum total cholesterol and LDL-C, but also significantly decrease HDL-C levels and lag phase of LDL oxidation. However, supplementation of BL in S diet group enhanced the reduction of serum cholesterol and also inhibited the oxidation of LDL very significantly (P<0.01). Supplementation of vitamins C and E couldn’t enhance antioxidative effect of BL. These results demonstrate that ingestion of 15 g/day of BL may reduce the risk of serum LDL oxidation which can be enhanced by a PUFA-rich diet.
論文目次第一章 前言……………………………………..…………..1 第二章 文獻回顧……………………………….……………3 一、 自由基與氧化傷害……………………………………..3 (一) 自由基與反應性氧分子....................................…...3 (二) 自由基與反應性氧分子的來源........................…...3 (三) 體內的抗氧化防禦系統…………………………...5 (四) 自由基對生物體的傷害…………………………...9 二、 低密度脂蛋白與動脈粥狀硬化………………………12 (一) 人類低密度脂蛋白……………………………….12 (二) 氧化修飾的低密度脂蛋白………………….……13 (三) 低密度脂蛋白的氧化機制…………………….…16 (四) 氧化修飾低密度脂蛋白對動脈粥狀硬化的影響 ……………….……………………………………24 (五) 低密度脂蛋白抗氧化活性的測定………….…....28 三、 不同飽和度油脂對低密度脂蛋白氧化修飾之影響…29 四、 飲食中的抗氧化物……………………………………32 五、 大麥苗的抗氧化效果 ………………………………38 第三章 材料與方法………………….………………………57 壹、 實驗材料………………………………………………57 一、 飲食材料………………….…………………...….57 二、 分析用試劑及試藥……………….………....……57 三、 儀器設備………..…………….….……………….59 貳、 人體試驗………….…………………..……………….60 一、 研究對象…………..…………………..………….60 二、 實驗方法………………...………….…………….61 (一) 飲食設計……………………...……...….……61 (二) 實驗步驟…………….……..…….….….…….61 (三) 檢體收集……….………………..…..….…….62 (四) 材料成分分析………………..…….….…...…62 (五) 血液檢體分析……………………………..….65 三、統計方法……………………………………….…….71 第四章 結果.…………….……………………………..……76 壹、 實驗材料成分分析……...…………………………….76 一、 大麥苗成分分析………………………………….76 二、 橄欖油及黃豆油脂肪酸組成百分比………….…76 貳、 人體試驗………………………...…………………….77 一、 受試者狀況……………………………...………..77 二、 生化檢測值分析………………………...………..77 第五章 討論.………….…………..……………….…………97 一、 攝取不同脂肪酸對血清脂質之影響…………….97 二、 攝取大麥苗對血清膽固醇之影響…………….…99 三、 攝取不同脂肪酸對於低密度脂蛋白氧化遲滯期 之影響…………………………………………...100 四、 攝取大麥苗對於低密度脂蛋白氧化遲滯期之影響………………………………………………...102 五、 大麥苗抗氧化機制之探討…………………...…103 第六章 結論…………………………….……..…………….111 參考文獻……………………...…..…………………………..112 表目錄 頁次 表Ⅰ-1 自由基與反應性氧分子之實例………………………42 表Ⅰ-2 氧化損傷的修復系統…………………………………43 表Ⅰ-3 人類低密度脂蛋白之組成……………………………44 表Ⅰ-4 氧化低密度脂蛋白與致粥狀化效應間之相關性……45 表Ⅱ-1 大麥苗成分分析………………………………………73 表Ⅱ-2 受試者基本資料………………………………………74 表Ⅲ-1 實驗油脂脂肪酸組成百分比…………………………81 表Ⅲ-2 攝取不同脂肪酸、大麥苗、維生素C和E對血清 總脂質之影響……………..……..……………………82 表Ⅲ-3 攝取不同脂肪酸、大麥苗、維生素C和E對血清 三酸甘油酯之影響……………………………………83 表Ⅲ-4 攝取不同脂肪酸、大麥苗、維生素C和E對血清 總膽固醇之影響………………………………………84 表Ⅲ-5 攝取不同脂肪酸、大麥苗、維生素C和E對人體 LDL-C之影響…………….………………….………85 表Ⅲ-6 攝取不同脂肪酸、大麥苗、維生素C和E對人體 HDL-C之影響……………………………...…………86 表Ⅲ-7 攝取不同脂肪酸、大麥苗、維生素C和E對低密 度脂蛋白氧化遲滯時間之影響………………………87 圖目錄 頁次 圖Ⅰ-1 內源性抗氧化劑在細胞內的分佈情形……………..46 圖Ⅰ-2 氧化傷害的形成……………………………………..47 圖Ⅰ-3 脂質過氧化反應及共軛雙烯的形成…………..……48 圖Ⅰ-4 氧化低密度脂蛋白藉由清除接受體活化PPARγ之 新生訊號途徑…………………………..….………..49 圖Ⅰ-5 低密度脂蛋白氧化期間發生的主要事件….……..…50 圖Ⅰ-6 早期動脈粥狀硬化示意圖………………….………..51 圖Ⅰ-7 低密度脂蛋白在體外氧化過程中共軛雙烯變化情 形..……………………………………….….……….52 圖Ⅰ-8 不飽和脂肪酸結構上各碳氫鍵之解離能….….…….53 圖Ⅰ-9 低密度脂蛋白氧化過程中內源性抗氧化劑消耗及 共軛雙烯形成情形………………………….….…….54 圖Ⅰ-10 類黃酮架構……………………………………….…..55 圖Ⅰ-11 2"-O-Glucosylisovitexin結構….……………….……..56 圖Ⅱ-1 血清、極低密度脂蛋白與低密度脂蛋白之電泳圖…..….75 圖Ⅲ-1 以氣相層析儀分析實驗油脂中脂肪酸組成………...88 圖Ⅲ-2 攝取不同食用油脂、大麥苗、維生素C和E對人 體血清總膽固醇的改變(%)…………………..……90 圖Ⅲ-3 攝取不同食用油脂、大麥苗、維生素C和E對人 體血清低密度脂蛋白膽固醇的改變(%)…..………91 圖Ⅲ-4 攝取不同食用油脂、大麥苗、維生素C和E對人 體血清高密度脂蛋白膽固醇的改變(%)…..……...92 圖Ⅲ-5 攝取不同食用油脂之低密度脂蛋白在銅離子誘導 氧化過程中共軛雙烯的生成情形…………………..93 圖Ⅲ-6 攝取大麥苗對於不同食用油脂飲食受試者之低密 度脂蛋白在銅離子誘導氧化過程中共軛雙烯的生 成情形……….……………………………………….94 圖Ⅲ-7 攝取大麥苗及維生素C、E對於不同食用油脂飲 食受試者之低密度脂蛋白在銅離子誘導氧化過程 中共軛雙烯的生成情形……………………..………95 圖Ⅲ-8 攝取不同食用油脂、大麥苗、維生素C和E對人 體低密度脂蛋白氧化遲滯時間的改變(%)………96 附圖-1 攝取大麥苗對於黃豆油組受試者之低密度脂蛋白 在銅離子誘導氧化過程中共軛雙烯的生成情形.…109 附圖-2 攝取大麥苗對於橄欖油組受試者之低密度脂蛋白 在銅離子誘導氧化過程中共軛雙烯的生成情形.…110
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