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學校名稱輔仁大學
系所名稱語言學研究所
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學號486286096
研究生(中)黃千芸
研究生(英)Chian-Yun Huang
論文名稱(中)溝通活動在音樂治療中的重複與變化:初步質性個案研究
論文名稱(英)Repetition and Variation of Communication Activities in Music Therapy: A Qualitative Case Study
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指導教授(中)洪振耀
指導教授(英)Dr. Gabriel Hong
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關鍵字(中)音樂治療 重複 變化 音樂 語言 溝通 互動
關鍵字(英)Music Therapy Repetition Variation Music Language Communication Interaction
摘要(中)語言學家相信語言能力是人性中非常基本的能力,而音樂治療師也相信音樂能力是人類在各式障礙中仍保有的基本人性,藉此得以激發其潛能,以達成療育的目的。在音樂治療師臨床治療的各式各類對象中,一些具有心智障礙的兒童,他們同時也可能伴隨不同程度的語言障礙。部分個案在接受語言治療時,因為其心智發展障礙之影響,而不易達成治療目標,不過他們在音樂治療中卻呈現某些成效。音樂治療師就個案的狀況設定不同治療目標,也許語言能力之培健(habilitation)並不是當中最主要的,但是協助他們在語言或非語言的表現上,能夠與他人產生互動,自然也是其中一項樂見其成的目標,而且這樣的互動往往也就是在音樂活動中展現出來的。 本文中提出重複與變化(repetition and variation)是兩項促使學習轉移(transfer of learning)的重要機制,且為語言與音樂共有的特質,尤其在音樂治療的情境中,是並存且不可或缺的,並且以神經生理、生物化學、學習理論等相關文獻以及臨床觀察結果討論來支持本論點。 本研究主要是觀察音樂過程中,音樂的介入是否影響了治療師與個案間的溝通與互動形式。為瞭解音樂活動影響下之差異,本研究採用非參與之觀察法,就音樂治療師和個案在音樂治療過程之互動(語言、非語言、動作表現等)予以錄影,將錄影資料轉寫成書面語料,再就語料進一步討論分析。 觀察研究發現,透過含有變化之重複活動,個案接受的訊息刺激增加,個案在發聲及動作回應與治療師的互動增多。音樂也似乎扮演著第三者的角色,將訊息傳遞給治療師與個案、並促進治療師與個案間語言、非語言的互動。若使用有歌詞的音樂(歌曲),在歌詞轉接之間的時間,治療師時常口頭重複歌詞詞義中的重要訊息或者指令,並加入動作表現,此即是重複與變化之呈現。若使用的音樂是無歌詞的樂曲,則治療師隨著音樂進行加入指令或配合音調將訊息含於其中。藉由語言與音樂及重複與變化,可以協助個案增加練習機會,同時,個案也透過語言或音樂中重複變化的特性給予回饋。可見重複變化與音樂、語言活動之間,可能有增強學習者學習的效用。透過音樂活動之實際學習經驗,可幫助個案在愉悅的情境中學習,除了增進語言、非語言的表現之外,也建立個案與他人互動的關係、與對環境的感受度。 此研究在臨床上的意義是,在我們試圖瞭解音樂對語言活動之影響、分析討論其活動情形以作為對特殊兒童在治療上或在學習上培健語言能力之考量,並藉以培健語言溝通能力之時,重複與變化可能是有用的切入點。
摘要(英)Music therapists believe that when patients lost most abilities, music ability may be the preserved one and it can help patients to reach other potentials. Many mental handicap children are with language or speech defects in different levels. It may be difficult for them to reach therapeutic aim in language and speech therapy because of their mental handicaps, however, some positive results may perform unexpectedly by the patients in music therapy. May be the habilitation of language or speech ability of the patients is not the first aim among the goals set by music therapists for patients, but helping them interact with people through verbal or nonvebal performances can be a expected result. Such interaction is often established during music activities. This thesis aims to explore if any mechanism exits between language activity and music, which would promote personal interaction during music therapy. In order to understand the interaction (including verbal, nonverbal, motoric performances) between a patient and a therapist under music intervention, we observed and videotaped the process of music therapy, then transcribed all video data to written transcript for analysis and discussion. Repetition and variation are two essential mechanisms for establishment and transference of learning, which language and music activities share. Some biochemical, neurophysiological, and pedagogical literatures are cited in this study to support this idea. Our clinical case observations reveal that, with music intervention, repetitive presentation of stimuli is more readily acceptable, and the patients show more responses to the therapist. Besides, interaction style between the therapist and the patient is different when music intervenes. Music seems to play a role as third party, transmitting information to the therapist and the patient, and promotes the interaction between the therapist and the patient in the therapy. The therapists and the patients interact with each other through repetition and variation with language or music during the therapy, so the repetition and variation are important elements for interaction and learning in the therapy. The therapeutic efficacy of music on language activity is somewhat substantiated. This should be implicative for music therapy, language therapy and special education. Repetition and Variation could be essential and reasonable points when we try to understand the influences of music on language activities.
論文目次中文摘要………………………………………………………………...i ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………… iii 誌謝感言…………………………………………………………………v TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………vi LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………ix LIST OF FIGURES …………………………………………………………x LIST OF DIAGRAMS ………………………………………………………xi Chapter One. Introduction 1.1 Rationale…………………………………………………………….1 1.2 Motivation.………………………………………………………….3 1.3 Scope and Objectives.………………………………………………4 1.4 Hypothesis.………………………………………………………….5 1.5 Significance…………………………………………………………5 1.6 Organization ………………………………………………………..6 Chapter Two. Literature Review 2.1 Review on the Studies of Linguistics and Musicology ……………7 2.2 Review on the Studies of Language, Speech, and Music in Music Therapy …………………………………………………9 2.3 Aspects of Interactions between Language, Music and Modalities…………………………………………………….12 2.3.1 Language, Music, and Hemisphere Processing………………12 2.3.2 Music on Audio-Motor Integration…………………………..13 2.3.3 Mechanism of Music Therapy………………………………..14 2.4 Repetition and Variation in Neurobiological Pattern Formation….17 2.4.1 Significance of Repetition and Variation on Learning……….17 2.4.2 Neurophysicological and Biochemical Aspects……………...19 2.5 Repetition and Variation on Language and Music…………….…..24 2.5.1 Repetition and Variation on Language ……………….….…..24 2.5.2 Repetition and Variation on Music…………………….….25 2.5.3 Classification…………………………………………….....25 Chapter Three. Methodology 3.1 Method………………………………………………………...26 3.1.1 Subjects’ Background……………………………………...27 3.1.2 Data Collection Procedures…………………………………29 3.1.3 Data Transcription…………………………………………..30 3.1.4 Instruments……………………………………………………31 3.2 Context of Treatment…………………………………………..31 3.2.1 Case I………………………………………………………...32 3.2.2 Case II………………………………………………………...33 Chapter Four. Findings and Discussions 4.1 Findings…………………………………………………………….36 4.1.1 Case I………………………………………………………..37 4.1.1.1 Activity of Singing Greeting Song and Goodbye Song…….37 4.1.1.2 Nonverbal and Verbal Performances….……………………39 4.1.1.3 Interaction between the Therapist and the Patient………….41 4.1.2 Case II………………………………………………………...42 4.1.2.1 The Music Activity about Color….………………………...42 4.1.2.2 Nonverbal and Verbal Performances…...…………………..47 4.1.2.3 Other Activities…..………………………………………....51 4.2 Discussions…..……………………………………………………...52 4.2.1 Repetition and Variation….…………………………………..52 4.2.2 Language Activity and Music Activity, and Their Interactions…….……………………………………………...56 4.2.3 A Triad Discourse with Music as interlocutor.……………….61 4.2.4 Nonverbal Reinforcing Functions…..………………………...67 4.2.5 Physiological and Cognitive Facilitating Functions of Music………………………………………………………..69 Chapter Five. Conclusion 5.1 Major Findings...……………………………………………………70 5.3 Limitations and Suggestions………………………………………...72 Bibliography English…………………………………………………………………..74 Encyclopedia……………………………………………………………76 Chinese………………………………………………………………….76 Webliography…………………..……………………………………….77 Appendices Appendix I Lyrics: Greeting Song, Goodbye Song, Hello, Color.78 Appendix II Symbols for Transcription ……………………………79 Appendix III 音樂簡譜 …………………………………………….80 Appendix IV Part of Transcription: Case I ………………………88 Appendix V Part of Transcription: Case II……………………. 143
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