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狀態NC088FJU00462011
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學校名稱輔仁大學
系所名稱語言學研究所
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學號484286028
研究生(中)田正品
研究生(英)Samuel Zheng-Pin Tien
論文名稱(中)中文「被」字句之泛時性與共時性研究
論文名稱(英)A Diachronic and Synchronic Study on the BEI Construction in Mandarin Chinese
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指導教授(中)劉小梅
指導教授(英)Hsiao-Mei Liu
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國圖全文開放日期.2005.01.01
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學位類別碩士
畢業學年度88
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語文別英文
關鍵字(中)被動語態 被字句 受事主語 不幸的語意
關鍵字(英)passive voice bei patient subject adversity agent
摘要(中)本文定義被動句為:主語為受事者,而非其它論旨角色的句子。文中針對一些關於「被」字被動句之以訛傳訛的說法,進行檢測。 首先,「被」字被動句長久以來被認為只能用來傳達不幸的語意﹔其次,所有並未表達不幸含意的被動句,則被認為是古代翻譯者將印歐語言中的被動句逐字直譯成中文「被」字被動句的結果。這樣的歸因,本只是少數語言學者的揣測,缺乏證據,難以採信。 本文提出兩個主要證據來反駁此歸因。第一項證據為跨時代的古書中所搜尋到的許多表達非不幸用法的「被」字被動句,第二項證據為存在於英語被動句和現代中文「被」字被動句間的許多差異。事實證明在中國古代翻譯者能夠發揮任何影響力之前許久,中文裡早就已經有許多表達非不幸語意的「被」字被動句﹔因此,「被」字被動句不必然和不幸語意相關,現代中文裡其非不幸用法亦不宜視為被逐字翻譯影響的結果。沒有證據的個人臆測不應成為人云亦云的學說。 此外,本文亦對現代中文「被」字被動句的語意及語法特質,提出一些新的看法。
摘要(英)In this thesis, passives are defined as sentences where speakers select a patient as the subject. Some misinterpretations of BEI passives which have long been taken for granted are re-examined. First, it has been believed that the BEI construction denotes only something unfortunate or unfavorable. Secondly, those grammatical passives which do not denote adversity have been imputed to ancient translators who are said to mechanically translate passives in Indo-European languages into Mandarin BEI construction. However, these kinds of attribution, stemming from the speculation of some linguists, lack evidence to become truth. Two main pieces of evidence are proposed to refute the imputation. A large number of BEI passives in nonadversity usage are diachronically grubbed out from ancient books as the first evidence. Also a contrast between English passives and modern Mandarin passives is made as the second one. It is proved that there had been BEI passives in nonadversity usage in Chinese long before any ancient translators could exert their influence. As a result, BEI passives do not have necessary relations with the denotation of adversity, and their nonadversity usage in modern Mandarin should not be viewed as having been affected by literal translation. Personal speculation should never be enlarged into me-tooism. Besides, some syntactical and semantic explorations on modern BEI construction are made to cast new light.
論文目次Chapter I Introduction1 1.1 Motivation1 1.2 Literature Review5 1.3 Purpose11 1.4 Methodology11 1.5 Organization13 Chapter II Passive Voice14 2.1 Voice14 2.2 Thematic Roles17 2.2.1 Agent and Patient18 2.2.2 Agent/Patient vs. Subject/Object20 2.3 Active vs. Passive Voice22 2.3.1 Derived from Actives?23 2.3.2 Functions of Passives25 2.4 Passives in English and Japanese27 2.4.1 English Passives28 2.4.2 Japanese Passives29 2.5 Summary32 Chapter III Diachronic Study on Ancient Mandarin Passives34 3.1 Major Passive Forms in Chinese35 3.1.1 The Yu/Hu Passive37 3.1.2 The Jian Passive 39 3.1.3 The Wei Passive40 3.1.4 The BEI Passive42 3.2 Evolution of BEI45 3.3 Influenced by Translators or Not?48 3.3.1 Traditional Attribution49 3.3.2 Brief History of Chinese Translation53 3.3.3 Relations Between BEI and Translation56 3.4 Summary57 Chapter IV Synchronic Study on BEI Passives in Modern Mandarin59 4.1 Syntactic Analysis of BEI Passives60 4.1.1 The Patient Part (NP1)61 4.1.2 The BEI Part64 4.1.2.1 Grammatical Category and Functions of BEI64 4.1.2.2 The Deletion of BEI69 4.1.3 The Agent Part (NP2)72 4.1.4 The Verb Part (VP)73 4.1.5 BEI Passives in Clauses76 4.2 Semantic Analysis of BEI Passives78 4.2.1 Contrast Between Mandarin and English Passives79 4.2.2 Adversity and Nonadversity83 4.3 Summary86 Chapter V Conclusion88 References 90
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