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狀態NC088FJU00462012
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學校名稱輔仁大學
系所名稱語言學研究所
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學號484286080
研究生(中)趙小意
研究生(英)Alice Chio Sio I
論文名稱(中)台北區兒童國語對話訊號的發展研究
論文名稱(英)A Study of the Development of Children's Mandarin Turn-taking Signals in Taipei Area
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指導教授(中)許洪坤
指導教授(英)Joseph Hsu
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畢業學年度88
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關鍵字(中)對話訊號 兒童語言
關鍵字(英)Turn-taking Signals Child Language
摘要(中)因兒童發言身份改變的模式與成人的模式不盡相同,本文目的在於研究兒童國語對話訊號之習得。這些對話訊號的運用會隨著兒童的年齡層增長而有所改變。 27位兒童參與這項研究,其年齡為四至十三歲,共分為四個組別。他們的對話過程及內容(影像、動作和聲音)均被以V8與監視器攝錄下來,並作翻譯及分類整理。 分析之研究結果顯示年齡層較低的兒童在對話時,有較高比率之現象是把發言機會讓予他人;而年齡層較高的兒童在對話時,有較高比率之現象是主動爭取發言機會。此外,使用言語對話訊號的比率會隨著年齡增長而增加;相反地,使用非言語對話訊號的比率會隨著年齡增長而遞減。 所有的對話訊號都會有以下其中一種傾向:他們出現的頻率會隨著年齡而增加或減少。使用頻率會隨年齡而遞減的對話訊號是較早習得的,相反地,使用頻率會隨年齡而遞增的對話訊號是較晚習得的。 各年齡的兒童在對話訊號的選擇及使用上的不同,與兒童的認知發展,語言發展及社會互動的發展有密切的關係。
摘要(英)Since young children’s turn-taking system is believed to be different from the adults’, this study aims at investigating children’s acquisition of Mandarin turn-taking signals. It is assumed that the distributions of these turn-taking signals will vary. Children at different ages will have different preference patterns for these signals. 27 children aged from 4 to 13 participated in this study. They were divided into 4 age groups. Their conversations were transcribed and the number of turn types and signal types were calculated. 5 turn-yielding verbal signals and 5 turn-requesting verbal signals were categorized based on the data collected. The result of the study shows that younger children do more turn-yielding than turn-requesting. Older children are found to be more capable and willing to request for a turn than younger ones. As for their preference for signal types, it is found that the percentage use of verbal signals increases with age while the percentage use of non-verbal signals decreases with age. Both turn-yielding signals and turn-requesting signals show either one of the tendencies: their frequencies either increase or decrease with age. Signals that show a decreasing tendency are developed earlier in age. On the other hand, signals that show an increasing tendency are acquired later in age. These variations in the preference of turn types and signal types are believed to correlate with children’s cognitive development, linguistic ability, formal education and their development in social interactions.
論文目次TABLE OF CONTENTS TitlePage Abstract 摘 要I AcknowledgementIII Table of contentsIV List of Figures & Tables VII Chapter 1 Introduction1 1.1 Purpose of the study1 1.2 Definition of Turn-taking and Turn Types3 1.3 Delimitation of the Study4 1.4 Objectives5 1.5 Hypothesis6 1.6 Methodology6 1.6.1 Subjects7 1.6.2 Methods7 1.6.3 Data Analysis9 1.7 The Organization of the Thesis10 Chapter 2 Literature Review12 2.1 Introduction12 2.2 The Turn-taking Mechanism in Adults' Conversation12 2.2.1 Features of Turn-taking in conversation13 2.2.2 Rules of Turn-taking14 2.2.3 Overlapping14 2.2.4 Signals15 2.2.5 Back-Channel Communication16 2.3 Children's General Turn-taking Behaviors17 2.3.1 Features of Children’s Turn-taking17 2.3.2 Children’s Turn-taking Signals18 2.4 Children's Cognitive Development19 2.4.1 The Preoperational Period (2 - 6,7 years old)20 2.4.2 The Concrete Operational Period (6,7 - 11/12 years old)20 2.4.3 The Formal Operational Period (11/12 to adulthood)21 2.5 Influence of Social Environment22 Chapter 3 Children’s Turn-taking Signals26 3.1 Introduction26 3.2 Turn-yielding Signals27 3.2.1 Turn-yielding verbal signals27 3.2.2 Turn yielding non-verbal signals39 3.3 Turn-Requesting Signals43 3.3.1 Turn-requesting verbal signals43 3.3.2 Turn-requesting non-verbal signals52 Chapter 4 Data Analysis55 4.1 Introduction55 4.2 Preference for turn-types56 4.3 Preference for signal types58 4.4 On turn-yielding signals59 4.4.1 Preschoolers61 4.4.2 1st and 2nd Graders63 4.4.3 3rd and 4th graders65 4.4.4 5th and 6th graders67 4.4.5 Preference order of turn-yielding verbal signals 69 4.5 On Turn-requesting Signals74 4.5.1 Preschoolers76 4.5.2 1st and 2nd graders77 4.5.3 3rd and 4th graders78 4.5.4 5th and 6th graders80 4.5.5 Preference order of turn-requesting verbal signals 81 Chapter 5 Discussion85 5.1 Introduction85 5.2 Turn-yielding vs. turn-requesting86 5.3 Verbal signals vs. non-verbal signals88 5.4 Aquisitional order of turn-yielding signals90 5.4.1 On Signal 1: Name cues91 5.4.2 On Signal 2: Questions92 5.4.3 On Signal 3: Suggestions95 5.4.4 On Signal 4: Semantic Completeness95 5.4.5 On Signal 5: Paralinguistic features96 5.5 Aquisitional order of turn-requesting signals97 5.5.1 On Signal 6: designative referents97 5.5.2 On Signal 7: answering or responding to the previous turn98 5.5.3 On Signal 8: repetitions99 5.5.4 On Signal 9: Sociocentric sequences101 5.5.5 On Signal 10: complete or extend previous utterance 102 Chapter 6 Conclusion104 Appendix I108 Appendix II111 References112
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