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學校名稱輔仁大學
系所名稱語言學研究所
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學號485286116
研究生(中)邱智銘
研究生(英)Chih-ming Chiu
論文名稱(中)現代漢語”到”字及其事件結構之研究
論文名稱(英)A Study of Mandarin dao and its Event Structures
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指導教授(中)黃居仁
指導教授(英)Chu-Ren Huang
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關鍵字(中)到 時態 時相 事件結構 時間內部結構 動詞分類
關鍵字(英)dao aspect phase event structure internal temporal structure verb classification
摘要(中)語言學者已經多次的指出”到” 字 在結果式複合詞中表示第一個動詞的補語或者是使這個結果式複合詞成為一個瞬間動詞. Li&Thompson (1981)指出這一類的複合詞, 其第二動詞所表示的是第一個動詞所描述之動作的程度而非結果. 換言之, 動詞後”到” 字所描述的是一複合詞的時相或時貌.就時貌而言, Smith (1991)認為現代漢語無法在文法體系中表現有界(telic)事件; 此外, 她也認為”到”字這一完結時相詞可與有界型態事件相容.但就本論文研究結果, 動詞後 “到” 字可與無界型態事件相容, 而時貌詞”了” 才可與有界型態事件相容. 事實上, 現代漢語事件的有界與無界(telicity)型態並不完全由動後”了”或其他時相詞所決定, 事件中的論元角色也需列入考慮.因此, 本論文的研究重點是以事件結構理論來釐清動詞後”到”字與事件型態以及論元角色之關係. 在事件結構的理論架構下(RH&L 1998,1999), 所有事件可粗略分為兩種模式: 一為單純事件模式, 另一為複雜事件模式. 其中命題衍生事件又可依概念劃分的次事件之間的時間依存性來決定其衍生事件為單純事件模式或複雜事件模式.藉此事件模式分類與Freed(1979)的事件內部結構觀念得知動詞後“到” 字可在單純事件模式與使成(causative)複雜事件模式中表現一動態或靜態事件之狀態起始點.此外,依空間/時間的特性, 在單純事件模式中的命題衍生事件, “到” 字表現一如空間/時間終點引介之介系詞.
摘要(英)Numerous attempts have been made by linguists to show that dao usually denotes a resultative complement designated by the first verb or marking a resultative verb compound (RVC) as an achievement verb. Combined with a verb to form a RVC, Li & Thompson (1981: 65) describe it as a sort of RVCs in which the second verb expresses something more like the type of action described by the first verb or the degree to which it is carried out than its result. In other words, dao as an ending of a compound verb expresses the phase/aspect of the compound. In terms of aspectual theories, Smith (1991) assumes that Mandarin has no grammaticalized mechanism to mark telic events. She also assumes that dao serves as a strictly completive RVC in Mandarin to be compatible with telic constellations. For all that, I propose that verbal suffix —le indicates an unmarked completion and dao as a verb-ending is compatible with atelic constellations In some sense, telicity of an event in Mandarin is not only determined by phase RVCs and LE. The arguments of an event also must be taken into consideration. Therefore, the aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between dao and its preceding verbs and their interaction with arguments, especially within the theory of event structure. Based on the theory of event structure (RH&L 1998, 1999), it will be useful to make a distinction between two kinds of event structure templates: one is simple event structure template and the other is causative complex event structure template. Furthermore, the compositionally derived events can be distinguished between two types of event conflation: one is a simple event structure formed from the conflation of two temporally-dependent ‘coidentified’ events and the other is a causative event structure consisting of two subevents formed from the conflation of two temporally-independent events. By virtue of the distinction between simple event structure and complex event structure and Freed’s(1979) formal conditions as well, Mandarin morpheme dao refers to a change-of-state marker in a causative-state sentence or focuses on the initial endpoint in an atelic constellation. Besides, in the compositionally derived event of a simple event structure, dao serves as a preposition-like morpheme to provide an explicit expression of the endpoint of this verb-defined scale, which means that in addition to change-of-state marking, the Mandarin morpheme dao denotes spatial/temporal alternation as well (property degree path / incremental theme).
論文目次Acknowledgements English Abstract Chinese Abstract Chapter 1. Introduction……………………………………………………1 1.1 Background ……………………………………………………………1 1.1.1 Dynamic verbs with verb-ending dao…………………………2 1.1.2 Smith’s no-telic-sentence theory……………………………4 1.2 The Purpose of Study.………………………………………………6 1.3 Organization……………………………………………………………7 Chapter 2. Event Types of predicates ……………………………9 2.1 Vendler’s and Smith’s Situation Types……………………10 2.2 Verbal Semantics and Event Structure ……………………11 Chapter 3. Semantic and Syntactic Account of V-R Compounds ..15 3.1Correlation between Phase RVCs and other Complements......17 3.2Variation of Phase RVCs in Mandarin ……………………………18 3.2.1wan and hao as verb-endings in V-R Compounds……....19 3.2.1.1Semantic account of wan and hao as verb-endings …………………………………………………………………19 3.2.1.2Syntactic account of wan and hao as verb-endings ………………………………………………………………………23 3.2.2diao as a verb-ending in V-R Compounds………………26 3.2.2.1Semantic account of diao as a verb-ending……….27 3.2.2.2Syntactic account of diao as a verb-ending……28 3.2.3zhao as a verb-ending in V-R Compounds………………29 3.2.3.1Semantic account of zhao as a verb-ending……30 3.2.3.2Syntactic account of zhao as a verb-ending……34 3.3Summary ……………………………………………………….35 Chapter Four: Aspectual Dimension in Mandarin……………37 4.1 Temporal Analysis of Events ………………………………………44 4.1.1 A Description of Freed’s Time Segments……………………46 4.1.2 Event Types and Aspectul Choices……………………………55 4.1.2.1The Development of the Verb Classification……………56 4.1.2.2 Aspectual Markers and Situation Type Shifts…………63 4.1.2.2.1 A Comparison between English and Mandarin Inchoatives ………………………………………………………………………………66 4.1.2.2.2 A Comparison between English and Mandarin Completives ………………………………………………………………………………73 4.2 Aspectual Marker LE in Mandarin…………………………………81 4.2.1 —le in Non-Stative Situations ……………………………85 4.2.2 —le in Stative Situations …………………………………….97 4.3 Mandarin RVCs and LE in Internal Temporal Structures……104 Chapter Five: Event Structure with Verb-ending dao ……………114 5.1 The Morpheme dao in Mandarin …………………………………115 5.2 A Theory of Event Structure ……………………………………126 5.2.1 Constants and Event Structure Templates…………………126 5.2.2 Two Types of Compositionally Derived Events……………132 5.3 Two types of Event structures with dao …………………138 5.3.1 dao in Simple Event Structures……………………………139 5.3.2 dao in Complex Event Structure………………………………145 Chapter Six: Conclusion………………………………………………151 References: …………………………………………………………157 Appendix
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