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學校名稱輔仁大學
系所名稱語言學研究所
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學號485286087
研究生(中)張秀娟
研究生(英)Chang Hsiu-chuan
論文名稱(中)漢語動貌詞'繼續' '下去' 之研究
論文名稱(英)A Study of Mandarin Aspectual verbs: JI-XU and XIA-QU
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指導教授(中)黃居仁
指導教授(英)Chu-Ren Huang
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關鍵字(中)動貌詞 繼續 下去
關鍵字(英)aspectual verb continue
摘要(中)本論文主要探討漢語動貌詞「繼續」和「下去」在語意及句法上的現象與特徵。藉由對「繼續」和「下去」的討論,有助於了解它們在漢語中如何標記持續的事件。 本論文的架構如下: 第一章為緒論,簡單描述「繼續」和「下去」在句子中的異同處、文獻回顧、本論文的目標及各章節的主要內容。第二章根據Smith 的理論,將漢語動詞分類,並討論各類事件結構和動貌標記間的相容性。第三章探討「繼續」的時間結構和各類事件結構間的相容性。動貌詞「繼續」著眼於事件的持續,因此事件結構中帶有終點者無法與之相容。第四章探討「下去」的語意、時間結構以及和事件結構的相容性。「下去」語意較複雜,帶有方向性語意及引申語意。句法上,「下去」是附著於動詞後的詞綴來標記事件的持續。第五章對「繼續」和「下去」二者間對事件結構的相容性、句法及語意特徵的異同處做比較,解釋二者間對持續事件的標記功能。第六章為結論,簡述本論文所提議的重要論點與發現。
摘要(英)In this paper, we studied the aspectual function of ji-xu and xia-qu. Based on Smith’s categorization of situation types, we classified Mandarin verbs into five categories. We examined the compatibility between Mandarin situation types and aspect markers. We found that ji-xu and xia-qu behave consistently when interacting with situation types. Both of ji-xu and xia-qu cannot co-occur with bounded events such as accomplishments and achievements or events that do not involve time, like statives. They are compatible with activities. Although ji-xu and xia-qu behave consistently while interacting with situation types, the different temporal schemata of them make them have different aspectual meaning. The temporal schema of ji-xu indicates the prior occurrence of the event. In other words, it presupposes the event that must happened in an earlier time. However, xia-qu does not have the presupposition. It only indicates the continuity of ongoing events. The syntactic position of ji-xu and xia-qu are also different. Ji-xu functions as main verb in sentences and xia-qu functions as suffix that attaches to verbs. When xia-qu serves as main verb, it does not indicate the meaning of continuity but as a directional verb.
論文目次CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Motivation -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 1.2 Literature review ----------------------------------------------------------------------------3 1.2.1 Wang, Li -------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 1.2.2 Chao, Yuan-Ren ----------------------------------------------------------------------4 1.2.3 Fang’s study of aspectual auxiliary ------------------------------------------------5 1.2.4 Dai’s study of Mandarin aspectual system ----------------------------------------7 1.2.5 Liu’s study of Mandarin aspectualizers -------------------------------------------9 1.3 Theoretical backgroung -------------------------------------------------------------------11 1.3.1 Vendler’s four categories ------------------------------------------------------------12 1.3.2 Smith’s classification of situation types -------------------------------------------13 1.4 Objectives ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 1.5 Organization of the study -----------------------------------------------------------------14 NOTE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 CHAPTER TWO SITUATION TYPES IN MANDARIN 2.1 Review of the categorization of situation types ---------------------------------------17 2.2 Situation types in Mandarin --------------------------------------------------------------18 2.2.1 Activities -----------------------------------------------------------------------------19 2.2.2 Statives -------------------------------------------------------------------------------27 2.2.3 Accomplishments -------------------------------------------------------------------33 2.2.4 Achievements -----------------------------------------------------------------------39 2.2.5 Semelfactives -----------------------------------------------------------------------43 Note ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------48 CHAPTER THREE JI-XU 3.0 Introduction --------------------------------------------------------------------------------49 3.1 The meaning of ji-xu ----------------------------------------------------------------------49 3.1.1 The lexical/literal meaning of ji-xu ------------------------------------------------49 3.1.2 The temporal schema of ji-xu -------------------------------------------------------50 3.2 Interactions between ji-xu and situation types -----------------------------------------51 3.2.1 Review of Freed’s English aspectualizers ----------------------------------------51 3.2.2 Ji-xu and activities -------------------------------------------------------------------53 3.2.3 Ji-xu and statives ---------------------------------------------------------------------55 3.2.4 Ji-xu and accomplishments ---------------------------------------------------------58 3.2.5 Ji-xu and achievements --------------------------------------------------------------60 3.2.6 Ji-xu and semelfactives --------------------------------------------------------------61 3.3 Syntactic properties of ji-xu --------------------------------------------------------------62 3.4 Summary ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------63 Note ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------64 CHAPTER FOUR XIA-QU 4.0 Introduction --------------------------------------------------------------------------------65 4.1 The meaning of xia-qu -------------------------------------------------------------------65 4.1.1 The lexical meaning of xia-qu -----------------------------------------------------65 4.1.2 The aspectual meaning of xia-qu --------------------------------------------------66 4.2 Interactions between xia-qu and situation types --------------------------------------67 4.2.1 Semantic concept of xia-qu ---------------------------------------------------------67 4.2.2 Xia-qu and activities -----------------------------------------------------------------69 4.2.3 Xia-qu and statives -------------------------------------------------------------------70 4.2.4 Xia-qu and accomplishments -------------------------------------------------------73 4.2.5 Xia-qu and achievements -----------------------------------------------------------75 4.2.6 Xia-qu and semelfactives -----------------------------------------------------------75 4.3 Syntactic properties of xia-qu -----------------------------------------------------------77 4.3.1 Syntactic position of xia-qu --------------------------------------------------------77 4.3.2 The omission of the nominal object -----------------------------------------------78 4.4 Summary -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------79 Note ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------80 CHAPTER FIVE COMPARISON BETWEEN JI-XU AND XIA-QU 5.0 Introduction -------------------------------------------------------------------------------81 5.1 The similarities of ji-xu and xia-qu ----------------------------------------------------81 5.1.1 The meaning of continuity ---------------------------------------------------------81 5.1.2 The consistency of ji-xu and xia-qu -----------------------------------------------82 5.2 The differences between ji-xu and xia-qu ----------------------------------------------84 5.2.1 The temporal schema ----------------------------------------------------------------84 5.2.2 Syntactic position --------------------------------------------------------------------85 5.2.3 Semantic meaning --------------------------------------------------------------------87 5.3 Summary ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------87 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION 6.1 Conclusion ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------89 6.2 Further research ---------------------------------------------------------------------------90 REFERENCES
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