|摘要(英)||From A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man to Ulysses, Stephen Dedalus has been resisting the dominance of the official history and thus he isolates himself from society to freely create his art and self. Isolating himself from the public to reject history as he may, he cannot avoid facing the personal memory imprinted in his body. He may be able to question the result of a historical event and thus free himself from the dominant history, but he cannot change his own past. His feeling of loss is also resulted from his attitude toward his memory and writing, both of which influence his perceiving of his self. In my thesis, with the application of Michel Foucault’s theory of self writing to analyze Stephen’s development from A Portrait to Ulysses, I argue what Stephen is afraid of is not history, but his memory, and the reason Stephen fails to attain his salvation through art and thus to get his desired freedom is resulted from his refusal to face his personal history, i.e., his memory.
I divide my thesis into four chapters, and in each chapter, I analyze Stephen’s development of the selfhood in different stages as well as the relation between his writing and his attitude toward memory. In Chapter One, I focus on Stephen’s development in A Portrait. In Chapter Two, I shall first solve the problem of the stylistic difference between A Portrait and Ulysses to have an overview on Stephen’s development in the two novels and thus to begin my analysis of Ulysses. In this chapter, I shall focus on the “Telemachiad” episodes: “Telemachus,” “Nestor,” and “Proteus.” In Chapters Three and Four, I bring Bloom into my analysis. In Chapter Three, I focus my analysis on “Aeolus” and “Scylla and Charybdis,” in which Stephen presents his two other writings: the Parable of Plums and the Shakespeare theory. In Chapter Three, I also make the comparison between Bloom and Stephen to show their differences of facing memory, language, and the self. In Chapter Four, I shall move my analysis to “Circe,” the most complicated chapter of Ulysses. In “Circe,” an episode of the stage performance, both Bloom and Stephen encounter their past on stage. Nevertheless, while Bloom faces his own past and transforms his self from an infant to a man and to a woman, Stephen still refuses to face his memory and is always Stephen, and when Stephen fails to transgress his limit and runs away from his vision of his mother’s ghost, Bloom actualizes the possibility of his life in his vision of his dead son.
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