|摘要(英)||Honey is the main income for beekeepers in Taiwan. Typically, honey consumption is based on watering down product, that other processed products are lacking. Although, certain honey wines are in the market, most of them are distilled, hardly made by brewing. Slow fermentation rate, bitter taste, as well as cloudiness development during storage are major concerns of honey wine, and those lead to a difficulty in brewing high quality table wines. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize various honeys, and to study the conditions of fermentation, and aging process for high quality products.
Raw honey was diluted to 24°Brix by water. Mixture was added with nutrient additives such as additives used by Berthold, modified nutrient additives by our laboratory, Fermaid KTM and Super food, and the pH was then adjusted to 3.2 by citric acid and tartaric acid. The honey must was inoculated with yeast starters ( S. cerevisiae BCRC 21823, S. bayanus BCRC 21623, C?te des Blancs and Lalvin 71B-1122 ), and fermented at 20℃ or 25℃, respectively. The honey wine had been aged at 16℃ or 25℃ for 3 months. The influences of varieties of honey, pretreatments, nutrient additives, yeast strains, fermentation and aging temperatures, and on the quality of honey wine were studied. The conditions of fermentation for the optimal quality of honey wine were achieved by sensory evaluation in this study.
Selection of yeast strains was accomplished by inoculating individual 4 strains in honey must, and fermented at 20℃. No significant difference was noticed among young wines, however, vinified by S. cerevisiae BCRC 21823 and C?te des Blancs wine samples had better sensory quality after one month aging. These two strains were then selected for the following fermentation, and the results revealed greater fermentation rate was related to process temperature, moreover, wine vinified by C?te des Blancs at 25℃was characterized with the best flavor quality from sensory evaluation.
The fermentation rate was found in association with the different pretreatments. Separation of precipitate from heat treatment must result in the slowest fermentation rate of 25 days, but the others pretreatments took 15 days. The use of heat treatment and separate precipitate lead to the wine with greatest clarity and pure of flavor among pretreatments, thus this process was an adequate pretreatment for making honey wine.
The inclusion of nutrient additives showed no significant difference in fermentation rate, but the addition of Super food allowed yeast strain to convert more fermentation sugar to alcohol up to 13 % (v/v). From the sensory test, the wine with nutrient additive formulated by our laboratory imparted better sensory characteristics.
The fermentation rate and sensory quality were associated with the varieties of honey ( including longan honey form Chiayi, A-CHIH, Puli and lichee honey from Puli ), that the longan honey from Chiayi exhibited the fastest fermentation rate of 20 days, and those from Puli 55 days. The honey wine made of Puli lichee was ranked the best by sensory evaluation after 3 months aging.
The aging temperatures didn’t affect the honey wine compositions, but the aging duration favored the clarity and caused the decrease of total phenol. The extent of browning during aging was greater at 25℃ than 16℃, what be beneficial to impart a better visual acceptance. The aging temperatures showed no significant difference in aroma perception, but overall sensory quality of honey wine aged at 25℃ was characterized better than those at 16℃. Therefore, high quality of honey wine is processed from the Puli lichee honey under the fermentation condition developed in this study.
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